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Posts tagged ‘learning’

OEGlobal Presentation: Opening the Curriculum

This session was presented at OEGlobal in Delft and it complimented the article published in the special issue of Open Praxis (full text available here). My abstract described it as: (both the full live video with slides, and the separate slides via SlideShare are embedded below the abstract)

This session presents a student-led international open learning initiative that was then integrated into the university curriculum as a credit-bearing class, and disseminated to the wider community as an eBook. It began with a link facilitating OE enhanced classroom-based teaching between a university music class in England and a high school English class in California. The high school teacher extended an invitation to the university students to meet their high school collaborators, and this became a major international trip that sat completely outside the course curriculum. Five students worked together to organise and fund the trip from the UK to California to lead workshops and perform music with a variety of teachers and students in both formal and informal learning settings. The project was then formally integrated into the university music curriculum as a credit-bearing class, retaining all of the openness of the original initiative, except for the financial uncertainty.

Students can apply to the International Experience module in their final year of study and the small group on the module then work collaboratively to design their curriculum, planning the details of their trip, from travel logistics to their musical interactions. The environment created is one of co-learning, where students are engaged in heutagogy, the highest levels of autonomous learning. The assessed reflective journal encourages students to detail their learning process and engage with deeper learning. Every cohort is completely different.

The original trip was completely documented, and the entire process was written as an eBook. This includes 10,000 words of student-authored content, and depicts the entire journey in order to serve as a model for other students and educators. The eBook was published without DRM.

OEGlobal18 Opening the Curriculum through Open Educational Practices from Laura Ritchie

OER18 Reflections

This morning at OER, I typed as I listened to the keynote. David Wiley started with definitions. (featured image CC-0 by Alan Levine)

I have a tricky time understanding the labels. Names go with identity, and that is very important, but … I tweeted that I got stuck at the first half of his first question. Not that there was anything wrong with it, but if you’re talking definitions, that means semantics comes into it, and well that is a sort of provocation for me.

An analogy- I realise it is very extreme, and draws a simple connection where there are really a dozen steps, but it illustrates a point- We learn. People, providers, researchers, all like to label the learning. We breathe, and we don’t really talk about it because it is natural to breathe – we all do it. People do discuss air, but generally they label the air when there is something wrong with it- like pollution… If we label the air because it’s broken, does that mean we feel the need to label learning because it’s broken too? Perhaps.

I think many people learn inside of their labelled boxes. How did it get into this boxed state that we have to label the stages of opening the lid. Are we backwards in learning? or just looking at learning backwards?

The seeming desire for so many boxes across education is something that baffles me.

Perhaps we need to shift our perspective. (I’m gently referring to everyone with that we, myself included. For example, how comfy were people sitting in rows and listening to lecture after lecture? Ask yourself where you sit on that spectrum. I am realising more and more that I am past left field. You can probably find me digging and planting that field- metaphorically.)

I remind myself that people who put us in boxes, -sometimes others and sometimes we do it to ourselves – and it is not necessary that we are in boxes, or rows, or even chairs in order to learn. The labels, the definitions help us to understand and when well chosen, they help us to communicate and discuss with one another, but we don’t need them to learn or to teach.

When I met David yesterday (Wednesday) I asked him how does he feel about the imposed walls/rules around open. (he said whatever I asked wouldn’t be related to the topic of his talk, but I think this was) His initial answer had to do with how he talks to people who have never heard of OER and what he said was along the lines of (paraphrasing) – he gets people to use/do something first without calling it OER, and then people are more willing to adopt and accept, to come to the concept without baggage.

I explained that I do the same with music – I facilitate learning by showing and enabling people to do it, whatever ‘it’ is, and then I show them that they are using it- and they find it very hard to refute either their capabilities – as they have done it.

What I was really asking was more about the walls for those who already know about open as a concept. We talked more, and I appreciated the time taken to genuinely discuss with me. I was a stranger after all.

Fast forward to this morning’s workshop at 11am.

It was time for the workshop I was to co-deliver with my students: The sound of an emerging network. I was setting up the room in the break and there were lots of people around. When it came time to start we were left with a cozy group of 8 participants. Each of them was wonderful and they all did love it. Did the description with music in the content scare people off I wonder or was it just the extremely good other sessions? (these photos were all taken by Alan Levine CC-0)

The plan for the session included outlining aspects of how a community forms, giving a bit of my teaching theory to start- and using our recent student-led trip to Los Angeles as a practical linking example.

I could tie in all the elements of planning, goal setting, using and developing skills, and the pattern of introducing and realising co-creation with students. I did a few slides (I though people would like slides, and also I thought it would help to have theoretical things written down for anyone who did not speak English as their first language) and then my students taught the participants a battery of skills on the ukulele. (We brought 30 with us for the session) Slides are embedded at the bottom of this post.

Next groups were set the task of making a song. I gave them a general outline of various possibilities that included using or reusing aspects of what they had just learned… they were not pushed out of the nest without wings, but if the baby bird has not yet flown, sometimes they don’t realise they actually have wings. This scary feeling was felt by some in the room.

As they worked, we (my students and I) walked around, joined in and occasionally contributed a comment or two. At one point I asked one group if everyone was involved? And why not? Who took the lead? If everyone had the skills and the tools, what was stopping participation? Interesting discussions followed. One person blogged about it:

Today I have one major highlight, having experienced the teaching of Laura Ritchie and her amazing students. Laura is an exceptional educator – she introduces an element of meta to all her work, and practice – but in such a light-touch way.And I learned a little bit about playing the Ukulele – and thought a great deal about group practices, and left with a lot  more to think about, about my own patterns of behaviour in risk-taking group situations (for the record, I probably play it safe too much and am too quick to respond to a dominant voice. In a time-constrained situation this means I wait too long to have my own voice heard). Sarah-Jane Crowson

Well… there is a whole giant human side to life and learning that is more than resources. We have to understand people to work together. In a community there are different roles, different skills, different needs, and different goals. I will only ever know a small part of any of my students, and somehow I need not only to provide them with skills and tools, but also an open mindset for working. Open for me goes beyond the label. (yes, we need words, and I do love them, but there is so much more than I could convey in just these words.)

David made a point in his morning keynote about humility, saying we do not know how someone else might use, adapt, explore, and grow what any of us make. Well yes, and especially in today’s consumerist, proprietary culture, we need to be reminded of this. But. Let me add that we do not know how someone will internalise our teaching, how it will speak to them at that moment in their life and learning, and allowing for (I’m struggling for a word here…) flexibility, fluidity, perspective that comes with each individual’s experience is something I personally need to have in my teaching. I hope I achieved that today.

If you missed the workshop and are curious about what we did, you can see it here: (when I figure out how to upload slides somewhere open, I’ll add those!)

The final performances start at 35 min in the video. The performances are fab. Thank you to everyone who participated and to all who commented at the end. Those last 15 mins (from the performances to the end) are especially worth listening to. The reflections are golden.

After the session my co-presenters and I participated in a V-Connecting session and that was a chance for the students to share their reflections. What a rich experience! Thank you so much to the V-Connecting team for inviting us. 🙂

OER18 workshop Sound of an Emerging Network, Bristol, 19 April, 2018 from Laura Ritchie

 

Linking Skills, Feedback, and Assessment to develop Student Agency and Deep Learning

After giving a workshop it was suggested I write an article based on the principles. I have submitted it to present at the 2018 Learning and Teaching Conference at my university. There is not proceedings or publication from it, so I am sharing here.

Abstract

This article examines the concept of constructive alignment in learning (Biggs, 2005) and how integrating reflective practice throughout teaching and learning, encourages deeper learning experiences. Teachers are encouraged to aligning learning outcomes, activities, feedback, and assessment to benefit students as they progress from learning and preparing for assessment to achievement. Recognising and understanding the student perspective is essential to understanding the balance of how taught material, experience, and avenues for application of learned skills can impact student engagement. The principles of student self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1986) and the influence these have on student’s self-regulation of their learning behaviors (Zimmerman, 1998; Schunk & Usher, 2013) is explored. The importance of integrating feedback in accessible ways and providing opportunities for students to develop their agency throughout learning is highlighted and presented alongside practical suggestions for teaching.

Keywords: feedback, assessment, learning design, student agency, reflection

 

Across higher education there is great variety and diversity in the spaces used for learning, from the indoor traditional lecture hall with one teacher speaking to hundreds of students, to small-group seminar or lab type environments, to one-to-one teaching or tutorial sessions, to the on-site placement learning that takes students into the professional workplace. Each affords different dynamics and possibilities for skills development, interaction, and feedback. The size, shape, and context of teaching and learning spaces impacts how teachers structure content and how students approach learning.

Historically the lecturer transmitted knowledge to the masses, whether in a Greek amphitheatre or millennia later when lecturers teaching monks could be fined for deviating from the written teaching text (Beichner, 2014). This was considered educational learning. However, a student copying from dictation is far from what has developed as a modern understanding of good learning. Kolb shifted perspectives with his definition of learning as ‘the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience’ (1984, p.38). Bandura (1997) stressed the importance of the wider cycle of human behavior, including the context of how the self, the environment, and behaviors interact to have a causal, triadic reciprocity on one another. Teachers can use scaffolding, as based on Vygotsky’s theories, to create frameworks to help students achieve. Zimmerman (1998) moved from the teacher creating frameworks to analyze the student’s metacognitive aspects of learning, to understand the importance of self-regulating learning behaviors. Blaschke (2012) made the case that learners progress from a state of pedagogy, where they are expressly taught by the teacher, to andragogy, where learners are self-directed and utelize self-regulatory behaviors, to heutagogy, where learners are still more autonomous and begin to develop their own capabilities for learning. Downes argues that in the most autonomous situations, for example self-initiated online learning, constructionism, and embedding scaffolding, is neither enough nor an adequate description of learning. Connectivism, where students are the central agents who direct, connect, and network in order to learn, enables both agency and autonomy, but when this is mixed with constructionism in autonomous learning, it is flawed: “…the problem with social constructivism. There is no constructor. There is no person other than the learner themselves to do the constructing” (Downes, 2017, p.281)

Our understanding of learning has expanded from being an external thing to a process, and includes thoughts, actions, interactions, self-beliefs, and wider applications of understanding. This holistic understanding of learning develops broader skills and attributes involved in autonomy, agency, self-belief, self-direction, networking, communication, cognitive processes, and are wrapped into the learning experience and have become increasingly important to students as they approach entry to the professional world. Employers have shifted from looking purely for applied skills to also valuing understanding, efficacy beliefs, and awareness and implementation of metacognition (Knight & York, 2004).

In modern educational contexts, large spaces have an inbuilt imbalance where a single teacher addresses many learners at one time. Lecture formats are not designed for a teacher to provide an individual experience or even respond to each person within a session, and students do not prefer learning in these passive settings (Powell, 2003; Lujan & DiCarlo, 2006). Very large classes may have limited engagement with discursive tasks during sessions, impacting interaction with students’ work during the course, and assessment for large numbers is often through an exam or a set essay question where teaching assistants often take on grading responsibilities. When this is the case, there may be little or no guarantee of feedback from the assessor, and may be little opportunity for iterative feedback in preparation for assessments. A scenario like this begs the question how does traditional teaching and assessment cater to a student’s learning? If there is a simply yes or no answer to the question, how does it contribute to on-going learning? Without interaction where is the process? Exam tasks may be unrelated to the learning and skills that were taught, and become a disjointed, linear end to a class.

Learning as a cycle

Different definitions and models of a learning cycle have developed across education and in disciplines beyond education. Decades ago Kolb introduced four stages of experiential learning that move through experience, observation, conceptualisation, and experimentation (Kolb, 1984). This became a cornerstone for bringing the student actively into the learning experience. Boyd, who was not an educational specialist, but a military colonel, presented a different model of learning with the OODA loop, consisting of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (Boyd, 1996). Although reflection is not an explicit stage in this model, the OODA model is considered as a loop, with the understanding that feedback follows both decisions and actions, and is considered before the next situation is observed or encountered. Originally the OODA process was crafted to be a very fast process, as the speed of execution was essential for Boyd’s active men in the air force, and completing your learned assessment of a situation faster than your combatant was of great value in practical situations (Richards, 2012). Fortunately in education, speed is not always essential and in most settings there is not an aggressive race to complete learning before peers.

Reflection is an important part of the learning cycle. Kolb’s reflection involves an analysis of experienced events, allowing learning to transfer from the original context to another setting. Schön (1987) introduced various types of reflection into the learning cycle: reflection in-action and on-action. Reflecting while the action takes place, taking into account what is already known and using that knowledge to influence the unfolding experience is reflecting in-action. Reflecting on-action happens when people pause from the action, analyze, and apply criteria to experiences (Race, 2005). Creating distance from the learning event, gives an external perspective for reflecting on, or back at, learning experiences. Reflections on-action are then used to find meaning that can be applied to future endeavours. Race (2005) highlights that the deepest reflections happen when students go beyond simple analysis ‘to ask what else’(p.231).

Cowan (2006) added to Kolb’s learning cycle by integrating Schön’s (1987) types of reflection, and explained that students may reflect at different stages within their learning, as opposed to solely at the end of a learning cycle. Zimmerman (1998) introduced a difference to the other models that included elements of internal preparation that was a pre-action reflection stage, followed by engaging with activity, and was followed by another reflective phase. This formed a loop of reflection both before and after the engaging with the experience, linking reflection to the preparation for the next active cycle.

These cycles are more than abstract models, and in a higher education setting students constantly have opportunities to reflect as they gain information in the classroom setting, receive feedback, and benefit from opportunities to actively apply learned skills throughout their learning. Biggs’ concept of constructive alignment (2005) facilitates this reflection, beginning with the understanding that students learn through active participation. Biggs encourages integrating the skills, tasks, objectives, and assessment processes so they are aligned with one another, providing an experience that flows as opposed to undertaking a series of compartmentalized, unrelated skills or tasks. When constructively aligned, assessment tasks also become an active part of the learning process, instead of a bolt-on to look back on or simply mark what is already learned.

Embedding constructive alignment throughout a course, from initial introductions to assessment, encourages on-going interaction and feedback loops, which enhance learning. Feedback in its most simple form involves communication. This can be between teacher and student, peer-to-peer, or a student’s self-reflections. When students receive feedback and reflect on it, in metacognitive terms, this act of reflection is a form of self-assessment. Reflection can occur throughout the learning cycle, whether this is the ‘conceptualising’ stage of Kolb’s model, during the process of active learning (Cowan, 2006), or in preparation for the next task or cycle of learning (Schunk & Usher, 2013). When the elements of the curriculum are aligned, feedback and reflection become integrated into the learning cycle. In this way, assessment becomes another opportunity and means for reflection, and it takes on a whole new meaning.

Assessment as criterion-validated reflection

Assessment becomes an integral part of a genuine cycle, and not as an end point for learning, when it is re-framed as an opportunity to reflect (Bloxham & Boyd, 2011). Presenting assessment as a tool for criterion-validated reflection makes it valuable to ongoing learning, as opposed to the type of assessment that is an exercise in measuring some level of attainment like a binary test with right/wrong answers. An exam or test often marks the completion of a task instead of being a stage within an ongoing process, and may not necessarily encourage further thought or progress in learning. From a teaching standpoint, reorienting our perspective on assessment as a reflective tool within learning has implications on the way we feed back to students as they learn. Reflection allows self-assessment, with the chance to evaluate and reset goals in order to move forward in learning. When teachers understand how constructive alignment facilitates this from a learner’s point of view, they can better design appropriate assessment mechanisms to facilitate student learning. Teachers can support students’ learning by creating and facilitating an environment with clear objectives, tasks, and outcomes.

The need for feedback and reflection on assessment applies equally well to a student situation as it does to teaching. When teachers plan to align learning outcomes, assessments, and the activities that occur throughout their teaching, it is important to take on feedback from all available sources. Edström (2008) suggests that when teachers plan for alignment they should also practice reflection, taking into account and gathering specific student feedback through course evaluations. This two-way communication is necessary to ensure that intention is actualized, and both the content and teaching then move away from activities and assessments based on reproducing knowledge; they promote deeper learning (Biggs, 2011).

Considering the student

Students come to learning with a sense of their own personal identities, some conception of their abilities, and various beliefs in their capabilities. Some personal attributes influence and intersect with teaching and learning in a visible way and others remain entirely hidden to the teacher, however that does not mean they are not important to understand or acknowledge. Bandura (1977, 1997) introduced and subsequently developed the concept of self-efficacy, a student’s self-beliefs in their capabilities for a specific task, and these are central to learning. Without a belief in capabilities to do a task, many will shy away from it, and some will not even attempt it. As educators gain more understanding of the need for students to be active in their learning, fostering and developing self-efficacy beliefs becomes important to integrate within learning.

Students and teachers are aware of the need for goals, but few have insight into their metacognitive processes and how these can work together with self-efficacy beliefs to help facilitate and propagate the learning cycle. The educator aims to create and deliver a useful curriculum, excellent teaching, promote learning, and enable the student to broaden and fulfil his or her potential. A student may have a variety of goals, from immediate goals of completing assignments and achieving a pass mark in a specific class or module, to more long-term goals of gaining skills and crafting a portfolio that will render them employable in the future. In an ideal situation, the student and teacher understanding and perspectives on goals work in collaboration.

Students exercise agency when they are active in their learning, having the opportunity to take personal responsibility for their actions. In a learning context agency refers to the planning for and carrying out of learning processes, and there is overlap between agency and the concept of self-regulated learning. As students take responsibility for choosing and initiating tasks, they begin to self-regulate and direct their learning. When students adopt self-regulated learning behaviors, such as organising, seeking and evaluating information, and structuring their time and environment, they actively navigate their learning (Schunk & Usher, 2013) as opposed to following a predetermined path that may or may not be beneficial to the task at hand, such as relying solely on a textbook, one page after another. Using a textbook could contribute to excellent learning, but as sole curriculum and teaching tool, this significantly limits the interactive nature of learning and potential for personalisation of content for different groups of students. Self-regulated learning not only helps students to succeed at university, as they develop autonomy, use higher cognitive skills, and implement more strategic thinking in their learning, but adopting these learning behaviors also equips students to succeed in post-education training and workplace settings (Weinstein, C.E. & Acee, T.W., 2013).

Self-regulated learning practices and positive self-efficacy beliefs impact a student’s learning experience, progress, and achievement. This impact can be seen when examining the student’s approach to an assessment task. Whether for a final or formative assessment, a student’s self-beliefs and how they demonstrate agency in directing and carrying out learning contribute to how they address the criteria for an assessment. When areas of learning are constructively aligned, students are more likely to be prepared, and take an attitude that demonstrates positive self-efficacy: I understand the task, I have the skills, and I believe in my capabilities. I can do this. Students can move forward in their development as they reflect, use their skills to navigate the challenges, and continue to engage with their learning before, during, and beyond assessment.

In practice

When learning and teaching involve both the active contributions of the teacher and students, excellence, creativity, and reflection come together to enhance and encourage deeper, transferable learning. Excellence begins with the design of the learning outcomes and the curriculum. Everything from the environment to the methods can contribute to fostering a scaffolded environment enabling the student to discover and create (Pea, 2004). However, contact time is often limited, and:

“…it is not commonly found that lecture time is devoted to teaching exam skills. This is just one example of a case where students are taught content but the mode of assessment is actually removed from that content, and it illustrates a need to consider the task and how it is approached.” (Ritchie, 2015, p.40)

A teacher should not assume that understanding an assessment’s demands in terms of skills, their application, and requisite processes is obvious to a student. The perspectives of students and teachers can compete and this leads to amplifying the possibility of misunderstanding, with a disconnect between what the teacher knows and says, and what the student receives. In any one-way conversation, as in when reading typed words, there is no control or insight into how the words sound, how they will be read, or what impact those words have in the context of where and when the student reads them (Weaver, 2006). Context, inflection, setting, and any host of external factors can change how someone reads something. Without a clear direction and alignment between skills, tasks, and intended outcomes, there is room for incredible diversity of engagement and possible misinterpretation.

Scott (2016) highlights the misalignment with teaching and future tasks, and discusses the need for both awareness of a variety of experiences in learning so student transitions out of learning have ‘less abrasion’ (Askham, 2008). His focus is on transitions into higher education and vocational contexts, however these issues still exist in higher education contexts, with the multitude of facts students need to remember to pass exams, and this having little relation to their success in applying skills in a professional context (Sambell, Brown, & Graham, 2017).

Aligning the curriculum and enabling student agency means that the tasks during learning also prepare students for the tasks of assessment. In performance settings, students undertake countless repetitions, building a performance as they lead to the final performance, which in academic settings is also the assessment task. All the while they directly implement the skills needed for the performance; one repetition is not sufficient. In order to scaffold a real security and confidence in learning and delivering the necessary skills, teachers can embed several opportunities to use subsets of relevant skills to address different aspects of the assessed task.

With a diversity of tasks and methods of engagement, creativity comes into the learning process and it is more likely that feedback and reflection can be integrated into the process of creating during learning. Active feedback and reflection encourage a dialogue, instead of receiving a one-time, one-way comment, not as something to discuss, but as an acknowledgement of progress. Active, discursive feedback enables deeper learning and encourages a cyclic pattern of development.

“A challenge for the teacher is not necessarily to think of the tasks, but how to integrate them in a meaningful way into the course. …Students still need guidance and feedback on their engagement with tasks, whether these are accomplishments or failures.” (Ritchie, 2015, p.40)

When teachers consider what skills are being assessed and ask if the skills being assessed match the mode of assessment, they may find these difficult to align or find it impractical to assess the learned skills themselves, for example due to group size or time constraints. When a misalignment of skills and processes and assessment exists, there are two possible solutions: to either change the assessment, or change the nature of how skills are developed in preparation for that assessment. Teachers can begin to remedy this problem by adopting constructive alignment, helping students move from using surface approaches to engaging with deeper learning (Wang et al., 2013). Students cumulatively acquire the skills necessary to successfully achieve goals when feedback is embedded in the curriculum and tasks are aligned, and then the perceived value of learning will increase (Schunk, 2012).

As a practical example common to many higher education settings, consider what is required of a student when asked to write an essay as a final assessment task (Biggs, 2011). After sitting through a series of lectures, listening and taking notes, students may flounder with the assessment if the skills needed for writing the essay may not have been taught. Aligning the skills needed in the final assessment with the weekly learning prepares students to use their own agency confidently to complete the task. Reflecting on whether skills learned and assessments align encourages teachers to plan and perhaps re-evaluate existing curricular patterns of assessment and feedback (Sambell, Brown, & Graham, 2017).

With essays and written assessments, students need skills in research and writing, gathering information, creating coherent arguments, analysis, and integration of other researchers’ ideas, and how to clearly articulate this through written language. Embedding writing as a regular task into the course can train students and give them opportunities to engage with these skills (Kneale, 2015). It is not realistic to expect teachers to take on increased workloads, however students can feed back to one another, encouraging peer learning instead of relying solely on teacher-feedback. Scaffolding various settings where students learn from one another, through applied skills and discursive feedback can happen in class, or online through forums, blogs, or other collaborative tools.

Students need preparation in the skills required so they can be confident when it comes to accomplishing tasks. Consider broader skills such as time management and factors such as task difficulty. If students are learning presentation skills, but the assessment requires them to articulate themselves clearly in writing, then it makes little sense to set an essay task, however the learned skills could be integrated into an academic essay by requiring a 60-90 second video vignette to be embedded within or submitted alongside the essay. Producing a clear vignette piece to camera is challenging and applies learned skills, preparing them for future interview situations. Including feedback as time-stamped comments within video submissions provides context for comments and facilitates meaningful student engagement.

Constructive alignment does not belittle or discourage traditional types of assessment, but supports integrating relevant skills into learning and assessment and requires an awareness of the student experience and perspective. Participating in learning, reflecting, assessing, through skill development and active feedback processes takes on different forms across disciplines. By aligning aspects of learning and assessment in the curriculum, and embedding practical strategies and using self-regulation to encourage autonomy, agency, and self-efficacy, teachers encourage and prepare students to fully participate and engage in their learning. This engagement with all elements of learning, from skill acquisition through to reflection, encourages self-regulation, builds mastery by fostering skill development and application, teaches reflection, develops agency, and ultimately facilitates on-going cycles of learning and the transition from the classroom to professional practice.

References

Askham, P. (2008). Context and identity: Exploring adult learners’ experiences of higher education. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 32(1), 85–97.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review84(2), 191.

Bandura, A. (1997) Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Beichner, R. J. (2014). History and evolution of active learning spaces. New Directions for Teaching and Learning2014(137), 9-16.

Biggs, J. (2005). Aligning teaching for constructing learning. Higher Education Academy Discussion Paper. Available at: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/sites/default/files/resources/id477_aligning_teaching_for_constructing_learning.pdf

Biggs, J. B. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does. London: McGraw-Hill Education.

Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning13(1), 56-71.

Bloxham, S., & Boyd, P. (2007). Developing Effective Assessment In Higher Education: A Practical Guide: A Practical Guide. London: McGraw-Hill Education.

Boyd, J. R. (1996). The essence of winning and losing. Unpublished lecture notes12(23), 123-125.

Cowan, J. (2006). On becoming an innovative university teacher: Reflection in action: Reflection in action. London: McGraw-Hill Education.

Downes, S. (2017). Toward personal learning. National Research Council Canada.

Edström, K. (2008). Doing course evaluation as if learning matters most. Higher Education Research & Development, 27(2), 95 – 106.

Lujan, H. L., & DiCarlo, S. E. (2006). Too much teaching, not enough learning: what is the solution? Advances in Physiology Education30(1), 17-22.

Kneale, P. (Ed.). (2015). Masters Level Teaching, Learning and Assessment: Issues in Design and Delivery. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Powell K. (2003). Science education: spare me the lecture. Nature, 425, 234–236.

Race, P. (2014). Making learning happen: A guide for post-compulsory education. London: Sage.

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Ritchie, L. (2015). Fostering self-efficacy beliefs in higher education students. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sambell, K., Brown, S., & Graham, L. (2017). Professionalism in Practice: Key Directions in Higher Education Learning, Teaching and Assessment. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective (6th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Schunk, D. H., & Usher, E. L. (2013). Barry J. Zimmerman’s theory of self-regulated learning. In H. Bembenutty, T. Cleary, & A. Kitsantas (Eds) Applications of self-regulated learning across diverse disciplines: A tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman (pp.1–28). Charlotte, NY: Information Age Publishing.

Scott, H. (2016, April, 13) [blog post] Retrieved from https://cantankerousman.wordpress.com/2016/04/13/mythology-as-professional-and-sector-development/

Wang, X.Y., Su, Y., Cheung, S., Wong, E. and Kwong, T. (2013). An exploration of Biggs’ constructive alignment in course design and its impact on students’ learning approaches. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. 38 (4), 477-91.

Weinstein, C. E., & Acee, T. W. (2013). Helping college students become more strategic and self-regulated learners. Applications of self-regulated learning across diverse disciplines: A tribute to Barry J. Zimmerman, 197-236.

Weaver, M. R. (2006). Do students value feedback? Student perceptions of tutors’ written responses. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(3), 379–94.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulatory perspective. Educational psychologist33(2-3), 73-86.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31(4), 845–62.

Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic achievement: The role of self-efficacy and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 663–76.

 

Knowledge is recognising: Toward personal learning

This post covers notes from 80 pages (347-427) in Stephen Downs’ book Toward Personal Learning. I started reading the book and posting about it last summer; it was initially intended as a ‘Summer Book Club‘. I’m still chugging along, and after a few busy months I’ve carved time to do some reading and thinking. I particularly enjoyed reading these pages and what follows are the themes and quotations that stood out to me and a few short thoughts about them. In these pages Downes talks about learning models, understanding of some very core concepts, and really starts to dive into the why and what behind personal learning. (This post is a 6 min read; the book will take you longer – but it’s worth it!)

Let me begin with what should be an axiom painted graffiti style on the side of one of many learning institutions: ‘learning is not remembering’ p.348

Throughout the next 80 pages, Downes takes us on a detailed tour of different aspects of learning, understanding, and perspective. Read more

Ukes from the UK: Musiquality in California 2018

A week ago I was in Los Angeles with a small group of my students and one of my colleagues. We lived together, travelled together, worked together, performed, taught, improvised, and laughed. It is a final-year credit bearing class at the University of Chichester that started as a student initiative four years ago. The first group’s story became a book (you can download it for free via the link) and they named the initiative Musiquality, bringing quality and connection through music and education. Each year since the students have created an educational outreach project that touches the lives of children and adults, and inevitably changes their own lives as well.

This year the students involved in the trip raised over £1000 performing at gigs and busking and I raised money too, giving a benefit concert and through leading my community orchestra. Together we raised just under $2000 and bought 60 ukuleles to use in workshops and then donate to the establishments we visited. Read more

Learning what? Learning how?

So often education is outcome focused. Students are taught to take tests. They are taught to the test.

Rats. What’s the assessment?

In. What do I have to do?

A. Can you show me an example?

Maze. Do you actually have one that you’ve made?

It’s difficult to see a way out; it’s difficult to see a why and even more challenging to figure out how. 

Sometimes it isn’t about the actual tangible outcome- the essay, the script, the thing you make, the most important part is relational, understanding the process. The immediate goal does not encapsulate the longer term benefits of the task. Try explaining this to a student who says – but I need to get a certain grade or I can’t do the next class/task… Just tell me what you want me to do. It’s not just the students who are task oriented. Learning gain is a buzzword, and just after the definition, the section on the .gov website labelled ‘Why does it matter?’ begins with ‘Capturing how students benefit‘. Those two words in close proximity make my neck hairs hackle: capture and benefit. Certainly the concept of learning gain is not at all bad, it is very important, but the wording ‘capture’ makes me think.

Maha’s tweet rings true of how many academics do find themselves learning on the job, but also it is true of teaching in so many other contexts, including for those on the other side of the teacher’s desk. Good performers aren’t necessarily good teachers. Students aren’t born as great learners. Neither ‘teaching’ nor ‘learning’ come from the tap on the head of the fairy’s magic want that suddenly ‘learns you’ something. The learning- acquiring the se skills and understanding the processes- takes place somewhere beyond the textbook. The answers on the exams are not The Answers, they are tools- rungs on a ladder, paving stones in a path you are building, maybe even the trowel used to build.

Why do people miss the how? (especially in formal learning settings)

  • How takes time.
  • How is sticky.
  • How is where the perseverance kicks in.
  • How involves failure.
  • How needs help.

How also takes working with the ‘what’: knowledge, experiences, and a desire and willingness to engage with deeper learning. Even when there are teachers who do understand the how, the students can be hung up on not seeing an immediate why. Sometimes, the development of the how doesn’t produce visible ‘results’ until later, maybe well after that class, publication, event. Those seeds take time to grow, which makes it difficult to quantify in terms of standard metrics.

But I’m not a brick in the wall. I’m a person.

Image CC-BY-SA by Yi-Mei Ho

 

It is a dilemma to be in it for the long haul, the ongoing goal of learning, and to live in a real world where people are driven by demonstrating things, achieving, quantifying, and monetising. Perhaps as educators and co-learners, we can value the learning space and build some of that elasticity into existing classes, jobs, experiences so that those we learn, teach, and interact with can grow with us – for the sake of developing a repository of skills. Then if and when they build a path with their skills to a certain career, they will be prepared.

Learning Out Loud: Finding a Voice

Over the years I have gotten far more brave with my own learning and with sharing aspects of the journey. There is no destination in sight, but that doesn’t mean there aren’t arrival points. This post notices one.

Sometimes progress in learning is difficult to see – looking for the wood through the trees is a phrase that comes to mind, and there’s an excellent passage in the book The Forest People by Colin Turnbul where one of the forest dwellers is shown a clearing for the first time. He climbs a mountain and upon coming out of the forest into a clearing this was the scene:

On the plains animals were grazing everywhere; a small herd of elephant to the left, about twenty antelopes stared curiously at us from straight ahead, and way down to the right was a gigantic herd of about a hundred and fifty buffalo. But Kenge did not seem to see them.

Sometimes we cannot simply understand what is before us, even if we are in it. The same holds true for learning. As we progress day by day, today is likely to resemble yesterday, with small changes. It is only when we step back and look at progress over weeks or months that we can see changes clearly. Read more

Sowing seeds for learning

I am struck by how ideas form. This morning was like waking up under a bucket of cold water with various inputs – all enlightening, some glimmering sparks like stars, while others made me aware of darkness. Over the past few days thoughts have been bubbling about learning, as I read writings of others.

‘Learning is this’, ‘learning is that’. It makes me itch when theorists or educators so firmly define learning as a something. Imagine the teacher standing over the desk, asking the student, ‘What are you doing? Why aren’t you learning?’ really? Who could be expected to answer that? I certainly didn’t know how to answer the substitute teacher, so just turned my face back to the book, in grade school.

Sometimes learning is as etherial, something delicate and almost passive that is woven into our essential everything. I cannot just ‘learn’ just like I can’t just dream, but I can become more receptive to having ideas, and if you know me, I am indeed likely to blurt out with an ‘OH!’, mid conversation, because something popped into my head. Is that step one? It’s probably step 47, but recognising it is a good thing and certainly fits along the path somewhere. It is far less often the thing that happens when someone shoves a book under my nose and says: learn this.

What is learning? -Can anyone put their thumb on it?

Learning happens through experience and is the result of experience, but is not an experience. Thinking existentially: I am learning. Read more

Applied Imagination: I think, therefore I can

Yes you can. That’s a powerful refrain in my life, and it underpins so very very much. I had the privilege of teaching on the ‘Applied Imagination’ module at the University of Warwick yesterday. To contextualise, this class sits within Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Teaching and Learning (IATL) and the students come from all different departments and schools across the university- trans, inter, cross disciplinary are all big themes of the class, as well as thought, imagination, belief, and accomplishment.

It was such a special morning. I set off pre-dawn with my little care packed full of instruments, as my session would use music, but music as a metaphor. I know that people are not going to learn to be ‘musicians’ in a couple of hours, but music is so wonderful – it moves, it grooves, it makes you feel, and for so many of us it remains untouchable. I love to bring people to something that is perceived as being outside their reach. <— Hold that thought; I’ll return to it in a minute. Read more

Students, measurement, & connection: Book Club Post 4

Time for another Summer Book Club post! What? You say summer is over?? I am keen to hold on to every ray of sunshine, and as a slow reader, I’ll be posting well into November. This post covers pages 240-347 of Stephen Downes’ (free) ebook: Toward Personal Learning. I wrote about the earlier sections in these posts:

My method in writing these posts is to gather the bits that stop me in my tracks, make me think, write them down, and then connect the dots around them. Three themes emerged for me in these hundred pages: the students, the measurements that sometimes bind (as in hold fast, like hands tied) us, and connections. Let’s start with the students. Read more